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Web Site Optimization

Section 1: Markup and Code Optimization, Server-side Compression and Optimization - Tutorials, Research, Resources, Tools, Books

Want to maximize your Web site's performance, speed up your page load times, streamline and optimize your HTML, CSS, images, and scripts? Within the Web Site Optimization section you'll find helpful annotated links to articles, tutorials, scripts, and more on optimizing CSS, HTML and XHTML, Web site images, and JavaScript as well as server-side compression and optimization, too. Your pages can load faster, you'll save bandwidth, reduce file sizes, reduce server space, and much more by optimizing your Web site's performance. You'll also find a listing of recommended books on Web site optimization.

See also Section 2: Image Optimization.

Looking for search engine optimization tutorials, tips, tools, books, and more on SEO, SEM? See our section, SEO - Search Engine Optimization, SEM - Search Engine Marketing.

Know of some good articles, tutorials, books, or resources related to Web site optimization or server-side compression? Recommendations are welcome皇族电竞竞猜 and encouraged!

Web Site Optimization Books
Recommended by sx-science.cn

Read short descriptions, reviews below.

Read short reviews and find more book recommendations on Web site-related topics in our Recommended Books, Software皇族电竞竞猜 section!

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Tremendous insight and helpful tips throughout this tutorial series - HTTP requests, the Expires header, Gzip, use of and placement of stylesheets and scripts, DNS lookups, optimizing CSS, JavaScript, ETags, AJAX, iframes, and more. Chapter excerpt from the author's book. [Article/tutorial by Steve Souders, .]

  • Concise checklist with brief explanations for each. Covers a lot on optimizing images, optimizing code (HTML, CSS, using external CSS and JavaScript), removing unnecessary whitespace, DOCTYPE, reducing HTTP requests, minimizing use of https (secure server), GZIP compression, minimizing use and size of cookies, speeding up your site, improving server performance, such as upgrading memory, hardware and software, separating content and databases, and more. [Article/tutorial dated 12/04/2007, by Justin, .]

  • 3-part series that covers: Client-side code optimization, Optimal cache control, Server-side modifications. [Article/tutorial dated 03/10/2004, by Thomas Powell, Joe Lima, for .]

  • Covers using CSS for layouts, CSS instead of images wherever possible, using contextual selectors, using CSS shorthand, minimizing whitespace, using relative URLs, removing unnecessary meta tags, using external CSS and external JavaScript, remembering the ending slash in your URLs where applicable, and more. [Article/tutorial dated 11/2004, by Trenton Moss, for .]

  • 4-part series that covers: basic optimization rules, optimizing assets (images, scripts, and styles), optimizations specific to scripts, optimizations specific to styles. From their description: “This tutorial takes a practical, example-based approach to implementing those rules. It's targeted towards web developers with a small budget, who are most likely using shared hosting, and working under the various restrictions that come with such a setup. Shared hosts make it harder to play with Apache configuration — sometimes it's even impossible — so we'll take a look at what you can do, given certain common restrictions, and assuming your host runs PHP and Apache.” [Article/tutorial dated 10/24/2007, by Stoyan Stefanov, for .]
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    Optimize CSS, CSS Optimization Techniques

    See also Optimization Tools below for helpful tools that automate optimization. In addition, CSS shorthand is an important part of CSS optimization. See sx-science.cn's CSS Tutorials CSS Shorthand section.

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    Optimize HTML / XHTML

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    PHP script to optimize JavaScript, ActionScript, ECMAScript. Can be adapted for CSS, as well as other programming languages “Compact source code removing comments and spaces.” [PHP script, by Andrea Giammarchi, for .]

  • Detailed, thorough, step-by-step tutorial on server-side optimizing for Web 2.0 applications, including their content and interaction - JavaScript, CSS, images, and more. Uses Apache, PHP, Smarty. How to make sure you “optimize the size and nature of content required to render the page, making sure” you deliver the optimum experience by making content as small and fast as possible while also avoiding “unnecessarily refetching unmodified resources.” Very well done tutorial. Be sure to check out the comments at the end of the tutorial, too, as there's plenty of Q&A, discussion, alternative ideas discussed, and more. [Article/tutorial dated 05/21/2006, by Cal Henderson, for .]
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    First, the tutorial covers tuning Apache: Configuring the MPM (Multi-Processing Modules); Using options and overrides efficiently; Persistent connections; Compression. Then the tutorial covers tuning PHP: Opcode caching with Zend opcode and eAccelerator; php.ini configuration (“Four important settings control how much system resources PHP can consume...”). The article summary: “This article focused on tuning the Web server, both Apache and PHP. With Apache, the general idea is to eliminate extra checks the Web server must do, such as processing the .htaccess file. You must also tune the Multi-Processing Module you're using to balance the system resources used with the availability of idle workers for incoming requests. The best thing you can do for PHP is to install an opcode cache. Keeping your eye on a few resource settings also ensures that scripts don't hog resources and make the system slow for everyone else.” [Article/tutorial dated 04/30/2007, by Sean A. Walberg, Senior Network Engineer, IBM, for .]

  • Article/tutorial/discussion about the latest on tweaking Websites for optimum performance, with lots of helpful links and a numbered checklist with brief explanations and related links. See also the previous article . [Article/tutorial dated 06/24/2007, by Martin Kliehm, .]
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    Server-side Caching Documentation, Tutorials, and Research

    Official Documentation, Specifications for Server-side Caching

    Official documentation from Apache, W3C on server-side caching and HTTP protocol. See examples of HTTP caching implementation via Research and Tutorials on Server-side Caching below.


    Whether or not you need caching information specifically for AOL, this is a simple tutorial that explains things quite well. Covers Setting Caching Parameters with HTTP headers, Caching Examples using the Cache Formula. Explains all of it, unlike other caching tutorials out there. [Article/tutorial dated 08/24/2005, by .]

  • PHP solutions for caching. Goes into quite a bit of detail about caching with HTTP headers, solutions for IE, output buffering, template caching, PEAR Cache_Lite. Also includes sample PHP code, links to other resources. [Article/tutorial dated 11/07/2007, by Ben Balbo, for .]

  • Simple instructions and helpful explanations, along with screenshots to show how to add cache-control, cache-control headers (server-side) for Apache using httpd.conf or .htaccess. [Article/tutorial dated 09/10/2007, by .]

  • Fantastic tutorial that goes into quite a bit of detail about caches - Web caches (browser caches, proxy caches), the reality about caches, how Web caches work, how and how not to control caches (HTML meta tags vs HTTP headers, Pragma HTTP headers, Expires HTTP header, cache-control HTTP headers, validators and validation), tips for building a cache-aware site, writing cache-aware scripts, FAQ, implementation notes for Web servers and SSI, and references and further information. Recommended as a must-read tutorial.[Article/tutorial dated 03/17/2007, by Mark Nottingham, .]

  • Fabulous graphic illustrations here in this well-done tutorial on optimizing your site with HTTP caching. Topics explain what caching is and how it works, HTTP request and response. Also explained are various methods of HTTP caching - Last-Modified, Etag, Expires, Max-Age, Public and Private, enabling caching, and ways to check that your implementation is working as intended. [Article/tutorial dated 04/07/2007, by Kalid Azad, .]

  • Part 2 in a series of experiments by Yahoo! to learn more about optimizing Web page performance. Explains why the browser cache matters. Also shows page load times for full cache vs. new visitor (no cache). Research also showed percentage of users with full caches, empty caches - much to their surprise, “40-60% of Yahoo!'s users have an empty cache experience and ~20% of all page views are done with an empty cache.” This research showed them the importance of considering the prevalence of visitors with empty caches with your own sites and optimization considerations. [Article/tutorial dated 01/04/2007, by Tenni Theurer, for .]
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    Explains how browsers and servers 'talk' to each other, how compressing works and how it helps users and bandwidth, how to configure your server for GZIP compression with httpd.conf, .htaccess, or using PHP. Also shows how to verify that your compression is working using several free tools. [Article/tutorial dated 04/04/2007, by Kalid Azad, .]

  • Excellent, thorough tutorial that covers: How to enable file compression, Enable file compression using mod_gzip, Enable file compression using mod_deflate, What does it do?, How well does it work?, When doesn't it work?, What else could be used?, Conclusions, Further reading. [Article/tutorial dated 03/01/2007, by Dr. David R. Nadeau, .]
  • Techniques, Research on Reducing Server-side HTTP Requests

    See also above, Optimize Images with CSS Sprites, a technique that combines several images into one image and uses CSS for presentation.

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    Section at Yahoo! Developer Network that includes helpful tutorials, videos, research papers, and more on optimizing Web sites. Most by Steve Souders. Fabulous resource. From the site: “Yahoo!'s Exceptional Performance team evangelizes best practices for improving web performance. They conduct research, build tools, write articles and blogs, and speak at conferences. Their best practices center around the rules for high performance web sites.” [Web site section part of .]

  • 皇族电竞竞猜.com's section devoted to site optimization. Tutorials on many aspects of optimization - image optimization, optimizing CSS, optimizing HTML, reducing whitespace, removing comments, converting images to CSS where possible, using external JavaScript and CSS, much more. [Web site section part of , by Jennifer Kyrnin, Guide to 皇族电竞竞猜.com Web Design/HTML.]

  • An entire site devoted to optimizing websites. Lots of helpful articles and tutorials on handling just about every aspect of website optimization. [Web site: , by Andy King.]
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    A convenient, easy approach to optimizing your Web site for speed by installing a script on your server. In a nutshell, “PHP Speedy is a script that you can install on your web server to automatically speed up the download time of your web pages.” PHP Speedy will automatically compress your HTML, CSS, JavaScript - server-side by installing the script on your Web server. This script automatically does all of the following: For more details on PHP Speedy, see also the creator's post: . [Server-side PHP Script by Leon Chevalier, .]

  • [Server-side PHP Script dated 03/07/2008, by Leon Chevalier, .]
  • CSS Optimization Tools

    The tools listed below are either standalone tools or plugins. Note that many CSS and HTML software programs include CSS optimization options within them, including 皇族电竞竞猜gator TopStyle CSS, HTML, XHTML Editor and others.

    HTML Optimization Tools

    The tools listed below are either standalone tools or plugins. Note that many HTML software programs include HTML optimization options within them, including 皇族电竞竞猜gator TopStyle CSS, HTML, XHTML Editor, Macromedia 皇族电竞竞猜Site皇族电竞竞猜, and others.

    Web Site Images Optimization Tools

    The tools listed below are either standalone tools or plugins. Note that many graphics software programs include image optimization within them, including Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Paint Shop Pro皇族电竞竞猜, and others.

    See also Section 2: Image Optimization.

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    By Steve Souders. Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc. (September 11, 2007). From the book's description:

    Want your web site to display more quickly? This book presents 14 specific rules that will cut 25% to 50% off response time when users request a page. Author Steve Souders, in his job as Chief Performance Yahoo!, collected these best practices while optimizing some of the most-visited pages on the Web. Even sites that had already been highly optimized, such as Yahoo! Search and the Yahoo! Front Page, were able to benefit from these surprisingly simple performance guidelines.

    The rules in High Performance Web Sites explain how you can optimize the performance of the Ajax, CSS, JavaScript, Flash, and images that you've already built into your site — adjustments that are critical for any rich web application. Other sources of information pay a lot of attention to tuning web servers, databases, and hardware, but the bulk of display time is taken up on the browser side and by the communication between server and browser. High Performance Web Sites covers every aspect of that process.

    皇族电竞竞猜Each performance rule is supported by specific examples, and code snippets are available on the book's companion web site.

    Author's website: .


  • By Andrew B. King. Published by O'Reilly (July 8, 2008). Andy King's book is an absolute must have book for anyone creating or maintaining Web sites. He provides valuable information, examples, and great insight on how to optimize Web sites - for speed, search engine visibility, improved conversion rates, helpful metrics and tools, and more. Even if you think you've done a lot of optimizing already, you'll always find more possibilities within Andy's fantastic book. Highly recommended. From the author:

    This new book, Website Optimization: Speed, Search Engine & Conversion Rate Secrets, offers a comprehensive set of techniques with which to improve your site's performance: boosting search engine visibility for more traffic, increasing conversion rates to maximize leads and profits, revving up site speed to retain users, and measuring your site's effectiveness (before and after these changes) with best-practice metrics and tools.

    Author's site: .
  • More Books on Web Site Optimization

    皇族电竞竞猜The books below are either entirely devoted to Web site optimization or include chapters and sections on various aspects of Web site optimization.

    Read short reviews and find more book recommendations on Web site-related topics in our Recommended Books, Software section!

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